Chikungunya-Typical of viral fever

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Chikungunya, known as Sandhi Jwara, is comparatively unusual form of viral fever which is caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Some professionals state that this disease is not global warming but a new mutation of the virus that made the fever increasingly transmittable. Others experts speaks that the major cause of the chikungunya outbreak is because of opening of global economy. Chikungunya is not life threatening, but those affected could be physically weak for a fairly long time before recovery. It was first emerged in Bandung, West Java, in December 2002. The Chikungunya virus was first isolated in Tanzania and Uganda in 1953. This was the cause of the actual plague in the Indian Ocean and a threat to the Mediterranean coast. The aedes aegypti mosquito, considered as the prime culprit of causing the disease, is actually a localized insect. In its whole lifetime, it does not travel even a quarter of a kilometer. Hence, it is not the mosquito that is the cause of the epidemic. Chikungunya becomes an epidemic through people who travel from an affected area to an unaffected area. For this reason, it is very necessary to regulate travelers, especially those who are emigrating from a place that has several cases of chikungunya.The chikungunya virus destroys the resistance system of the body, due to which any underlying medical condition is intensified. That's why many deaths of Chikungunya patients have been reported. Chikungunya is more dangerous for elderly people because their bodily resistances are already weak. chikungunya in elderly people could cause cerebral problems like dementia and paralysis and kidney disorders. Correspondingly, chikungunya is more deadly in children as compared to adults because children can not express exact symptoms and it may take time to diagnose the disease. It is quite frustrating factor that clinical diagnosis takes enormous times in labs one is the National Institute of Virology at Pune, in Maharashtra. People have to wait for three months for lab results to come back. Physicians have observed that chikungunya infection provoked conditions of patients who had heart, kidney, liver and respiratory problems as well as those with diabetes. Complicating the diagnosis is the simultaneous outbreak of dengue.

In urban areas, Aedes mosquitoes transmit the disease from human to human. The main medical symptoms in patients are fever with very high temperature, acute pain all over the body, Sharp pain in the joints accompanied by swelling, severe headache, plentiful rashes, conjunctivitis, loss of taste in the tongue, mouth ulcers. The fever of chikungunya normally comes back to normal within two to three days, but the other symptoms continue for over a week or more. The fever is quite different from normal fever since it is accompanied by chills and feelings of nausea and vomiting. Almost a quarter of patients had haemorrhagic symptoms, such as bleeding from the nose or gums.

There is no specific treatment for Chikungunya. No publicly available vaccine for Chikungunya The illness is usually self-limiting and will resolve with time. Symptomatic treatment is recommended after excluding other more dangerous diseases. It is advised that pregnant women, immuno-deprived people and people suffering from a severe chronic illness consult their physicians prior to the travel in order to assess their risk and get recommendations on personal preventive measures. All travelers to these countries should take preventive measures to minimize the exposure to mosquito bites while in the areas. The present treatment is supportive therapy, including managing the fever and aches. It is not sure that herbal supplements or meditation would avert or cure Chikungunya infection, as some entrepreneurs are claiming. Some of the herbal supplements can be unsafe because they are toxic. There are numerous methods for preventing Chikungunya. The patient must proceed as per doctor's advice. Few guidelines to prevent Chikungunya infection are given below -

1)All stagnant water must be treated and removed. In stagnant water, the infecting mosquito aedes aegypti breeds.
2) Always use insect repellants in the surrounding area where there is a spread of chikungunya.
3) Conscious about dresses. It is essential to wear long pants and long sleeves when you visit some dirty area for official purposes. People, suffering from chikungunya must wear full clothes in order to prevent mosquitoes from biting them and further infecting more people.
4) The doors and windows of the houses must be kept closed, especially in the dawn and dusk periods. This is the feeding period of the aedes aegypti mosquito.

People have to take preventive action at personal level. Individuals should take measures to shield themselves against the bites of the mosquitoes which transmit the virus which are active during the daylight. Suppression of propagation sites can contribute to the lessening of mosquito densities. Investigation team strongly recommends responsible societal head to execute an intensive awareness campaign to educate public for the protection of this disease. Health care staff at all levels; government officials and nongovernmental organizations are called upon to help in this information and health education campaign. The Communication-for-Behavioral Impact methodology has been booming in activating affected populations for vector control activities. Infants and children, the elderly people are at greater risk of the disease and should be protected with repellents and mosquito nets. While state and union governments are responsible for public control measures, Indian residents should be sensitized to the needs to get rid of all sources of standing water. Mosquito-borne diseases disrupt major functions of society such as postponing examination, important business activities so that people must be aware and make strong efforts for combating such dreaded disease.